APA Citation Examples | Books, Articles, Webpages, Reports

APA provides different reference formats for over 100 source types, including books, articles, and webpages. See examples!

APA provides different reference formats for more than 100 source types. Therefore, it’s essential to first determine what kind of source you’re dealing with. In some cases, this isn’t as easy as it sounds.

Sources can take the form of a webpage or PDF file, but this is just the medium. When digging deeper, you may find that this webpage is actually a newspaper article, blog article, or press release. The PDF file could be a government report, journal article, or brochure.

Choose the most appropriate source type from the list below. Can’t find a suitable one? Check out the

official APA Style website

for even more reference examples.

Source type

Original content


Citing personal communications in APA Style

In APA Style, a personal communication is any source that is not accessible to your readers. Personal communications are cited in the text, but not included in the reference list.

Example
Another researcher stated that the results so far looked “very promising” (A. Smith, personal communication, July 15, 2015).

What is a personal communication?
A personal communication is any source you refer to that the reader will not be able to access—either because it was not recorded, is deliberately kept private for reasons of confidentiality, or is accessible only to a specific group (e.g. members of a particular institution or online community).

Because the reader cannot look up these sources independently, APA Style states that it is not appropriate to include them in a reference list. The point of a reference list is to allow the reader to find your sources, so inaccessible sources do not belong there.

Some common examples of sources that should be treated as personal communications include:

Private conversations, emails, letters and messages
Private social media content
Unrecorded performances and speeches

How to cite personal communications
When citing a personal communication in your text, you only need to give the person’s initials and last name, the words “personal communication,” and the date of the communication in parentheses:
(F. Davidson, personal communication, January 12, 2017)
If it’s relevant or important to the reader’s understanding, you can specify the type of communication involved:
When contacted for comment, Johnson stated that the controversy was “absurd” (H. Johnson, email, March 5, 2019).
During the performance, the term “Anthropocene” was used repeatedly (J. Wilson, performance, March 13, 2018).
Private messages on social media are always personal communications. Other social media content should also be cited as personal communication if it is not public – that is, if it can only be accessed by members of a specific group or friends of a specific user:
Members of the online community followed the controversy closely, with one user referring to it as a “media circus” (G. Richards, comment in a private Facebook group, April 25, 2018).
Quoting your research participants
Quotes from your research participants, such as interviewees and survey respondents, are treated slightly differently from personal communications.

You don’t need to include a citation when quoting your research participants, but the transcript or responses you’re quoting from should usually be included in an appendix. Just refer to this appendix the first time you quote from it, e.g. “(See Appendix A).”

Research participants are often anonymized for reasons of confidentiality. There are several ways of handling this. Where it is not important to distinguish participants from each other, you can simply refer to them without any specific attribution:
One participant stated that…
Where more detail is appropriate, you might want to distinguish participants by personal characteristics like age, profession, or gender:
(male participant, 52 years old)
Where it’s important to be able to refer to specific participants, you can use false names (as long as you clarify somewhere that this is what you’re doing) or numerical/alphabetical labels:
Participant D stated that…
A participant named John (names used throughout are pseudonyms) referred to…
[FAQ-article]


Citing tables and figures from other sources in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
When you reprint or adapt a table or figure from another source, the source should be acknowledged in an in-text citation and in your reference list. Follow the format for the source type you took the table or figure from.

You also have to include a copyright statement in a note beneath the table or figure. The example below shows how to cite a figure from a journal article.

Reference list
Shi, F., & Zhu, L. (2019). Analysis of trip generation rates in residential commuting based on mobile phone signaling data. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), 201–220. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26911264

In-text citation
(Shi & Zhu, 2019, p. 212)

Copyright note
Note. From “Analysis of Trip Generation Rates in Residential Commuting Based on Mobile Phone Signaling Data,” by F. Shi and L. Zhu, 2019, Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), p. 212 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/26911264). CC BY-NC.

Citing tables and figures
Tables and figures taken from other sources are numbered and presented in the same format as your other tables and figures. Refer to them as Table 1, Figure 3, etc., but include an in-text citation after you mention them to acknowledge the source.
In-text citation exampleThe results in Table 1 (Ajzen, 1991, p. 179) show that …
You should also include the source in the reference list. Follow the standard format for the source type you took the table or figure from.
Reference list entry exampleAjzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Including a copyright note
As well as a citation and reference, when you reproduce a table or figure in your own work, you also need to acknowledge the source in a note directly below it.

The image below shows an example of a table with a copyright note.

If you’ve reproduced a table or figure exactly, start the note with “From …” If you’ve adapted it in some way for your own purposes (e.g. incorporating part of a table or figure into a new table or figure in your paper), write “Adapted from …”

This is followed by information about the source (title, author, year, publisher, and location), and then copyright information at the end.
Types of copyright and permission
A source will either be under standard copyright, under a Creative Commons license, or in the public domain. You need to state which of these is the case.

Standard copyright
Copyright 2020 by Scribbr.

Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC.

Public domain
In the public domain.

Under standard copyright, you sometimes also need permission from the publisher to reprint or adapt materials. If you sought and obtained permission, mention this at the end of the note.
Copyright 2019 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.
Look for information on copyright and permissions from the publisher. If you’re having trouble finding this information, consult your supervisor for advice.
Examples from different source types

From a journal article
From a website
From a book

Note format
Note. From or Adapted from “Article Title,” by Initials. Last name, Year, Journal Name, Volume(Issue), p. Page number (URL or DOI). Copyright statement.

Note
Note. Adapted from “Analysis of Trip Generation Rates in Residential Commuting Based on Mobile Phone Signaling Data,” by F. Shi and L. Zhu, 2019, Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), p. 212 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/26911264). CC BY-NC.

Reference list
Shi, F., & Zhu, L. (2019). Analysis of trip generation rates in residential commuting based on mobile phone signaling data. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), 201–220. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26911264

Note format
Note. From or Adapted from Page Title, by Initials. Last name, Year (URL). Copyright statement.

Note
Note. From A Complete Guide to APA In-Text Citation, by R. Streefkerk, 2020 (https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/in-text-citation/). Copyright 2020 by Scribbr.

Reference list
Streefkerk, R. (2020, October 2). A complete guide to APA in-text citation. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/in-text-citation/

Note format
Note. From or Adapted from Book Title (p. Page number), by Initial. Last name, Year, Publisher (DOI or URL). Copyright statement.

Note
Note. From The Harvard Medical School Guide to Men’s Health, by H. B. Simon, 2004, p. 107, Free Press. Copyright 2004 by Free Press. Reprinted with permission.

Reference list
Simon, H. B. (2002). The Harvard Medical School guide to men’s health. Free Press.

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a book in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
A book citation in APA Style always includes the author’s name, the publication year, the book title, and the publisher. Use the interactive tool to see examples.

[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”book”]
Note that the format is slightly different for reference books such as dictionaries and encyclopedias, and for scriptural works like the Bible.

Basic book citation format
The APA in-text citation for a book includes the author’s last name, the year, and (if relevant) a page number.

In the reference list, start with the author’s last name and initials, followed by the year. The book title is written in sentence case (only capitalize the first word and any proper nouns). Include any other contributors (e.g. editors and translators) and the edition if specified (e.g. “2nd ed.”).

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Book title (Editor/translator initials, Last name, Ed. or Trans.) (Edition). Publisher.

Reference entry
Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. Verso.

In-text citation
(Anderson, 1983, p. 23)

Ebooks and online books
A citation of an ebook (i.e. a book accessed on an e-reader) or a book viewed online (e.g. on Google Books or in PDF form) includes the DOI where available. If there is no DOI, link to the page where you viewed the book, or where the ebook can be purchased or accessed.

Since ebooks sometimes do not include page numbers, APA recommends using other methods of identifying a specific passage in your in-text citations—for example, a chapter or section title, or a paragraph number.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Book title. Publisher. URL or DOI

Reference entry
Burns, A. (2018). Milkman. Faber & Faber. https://amzn.to/2ObKrVf

In-text citation
(Burns, 2018, para. 15)

Citing a chapter from an edited book
When citing a particular chapter from a book containing texts by various authors (e.g. a collection of essays), begin the citation with the author of the chapter and mention the book’s editor(s) later in the reference. A page range identifies the chapter’s location in the book.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor initials. Last name (Ed. or Eds.), Book title (pp. page range). Publisher. DOI if available

Reference entry
Belsey, C. (2006). Poststructuralism. In S. Malpas & P. Wake (Eds.), The Routledge companion to critical theory (pp. 51–61). Routledge.

In-text citation
(Belsey, 2006, p. 55).

Multivolume books
Some books come in multiple volumes. You may want to cite the entire book if you’ve used multiple volumes, or just a single volume if that was all you used.
Citing a single volume
When citing from one volume of a multivolume book, the format varies slightly depending on whether each volume has a title or just a number.

If the volume has a specific title, this should be written as part of the title in your reference list entry.
Eliot, T. S. (2015). The poems of T. S. Eliot: Vol. 1. Collected and uncollected poems (C. Ricks & J. McCue, Eds.). Faber & Faber.
If the volume is only numbered, not titled, the volume number is not italicized and appears in parentheses after the title.
Dylan, B. (2005). Chronicles (Vol. 1). Simon & Schuster.

Citing a multivolume book as a whole
When citing the whole book, mention the volumes in parentheses after the title. Individual volume titles are not included even if they do exist.
Eliot, T. S. (2015). The poems of T. S. Eliot (Vols. 1–2) (C. Ricks & J. McCue, Eds.). Faber & Faber.

Where to find the information for an APA book citation
All the information you need to cite a book can usually be found on the title and copyright pages.

The APA reference list entry for the book above would look like this:
Butler, C. (2002). Postmodernism: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press.
[FAQ-article]


How to cite a brochure in APA Style

Brochures and pamphlets fall under “gray literature” in APA Style, meaning they’re cited in a similar format to reports.

List the author (usually an organization rather than an individual), the year of publication, the title in italics, “Brochure” (or “Pamphlet”) in square brackets, and the name of the publisher. Omit the publisher name if it was already listed as author.

Format
Organization Name. (Year). Title [Brochure or Pamphlet]. Publisher.

Reference entry
California University of Pennsylvania. (2010). Campus map and visitor guide [Brochure].

In-text citation
(California University of Pennsylvania, 2010)

How to cite a brochure accessed online
If the brochure was accessed online (e.g., as a PDF), the format is the same except that you should include a URL linking to it at the end.

Format
Organization Name. (Year). Title [Brochure or Pamphlet]. Publisher. URL

Reference entry
Museum of Modern Art. (2004). Projects 81: Jean Shin [Brochure]. https://www.moma.org/d/pdfs/W1siZiIsIjIwMTYvMDcvMjkvM3h6ajlsbWNtaF9wcm9qZWN0czgxX2Jyb2NodXJlLnBkZiJdXQ/projects81_brochure.pdf?sha=f2f2e81f2cbf0514

In-text citation
(Museum of Modern Art, 2004)


How to cite a conference paper in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
The format for citing conference papers in APA Style depends on whether the paper has been published, and if so, in what format. Note that a separate format exists for citing dissertations.

To cite a paper that has been presented at a conference but not published, include the author’s name, the date of the conference, the title of the paper (italicized), “Paper presentation” in square brackets, the name and location of the conference, and a URL or DOI if available.

Format
Author name, Initials. (Year, Month Day–Day). Paper title [Paper presentation]. Conference Name, City, State, Country. URL

Reference list
Jang, S. (2019, August 8–11). Deconstructing the opposition of natural/arbitrary in Coleridge’s theory of language [Paper presentation]. NASSR 2019: Romantic Elements, Chicago, IL, United States.

In-text citation
(Jang, 2019)

[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”conference-paper”]

Citing a conference paper published in a journal
Conference papers are sometimes published in journals. To cite one of these, use the same format as you would for any journal article.

Format
Author name, Initials. (Year). Paper title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), page range. DOI or URL

Reference list
Elgafy, A., & Lafdi, K. (2010). Nanoparticles and fiber walls interactions during nanocomposites fabrication. Journal of Scientific Conference Proceedings, 2(1), 15–23. https://doi.org/10.1166/jcp.2010.1003

In-text citation
(Elgafy & Lafdi, 2010)

Citing a conference paper published in a book
Conference papers may also be collected in book form. In this case, you can cite one in the same way as you would cite a chapter from a book.

Format
Author name, initials. (Year). Paper title. In Editor initials. Last name (Ed.), Book title (pp. Page range). Publisher. DOI or URL

Reference list
Shareef, M., Ojo, A., & Janowski, T. (2010). Exploring digital divide in the Maldives. In J. Berleur, M. D. Hercheui, & L. M. Hilty (Eds.), What kind of information society? Governance, virtuality, surveillance, sustainability, resilience (pp. 51–63). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15479-9_5

In-text citation
(Shareef et al., 2010)

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a court case in APA Style

Legal citations (e.g. court cases, laws) in APA Style look somewhat different from other APA citations. They generally don’t list authors, and abbreviations are used to make them more concise.

Citations for court cases refer to reporters, the publications in which cases are documented. To cite a court case or decision, list the name of the case, the volume and abbreviated name of the reporter, the page number, the name of the court, the year, and optionally the URL.

The case name is italicized in the in-text citation, but not in the reference list. In the reference, specify only a single page number—the page where the coverage of that case begins—instead of a full page range.

Format
Name v. Name, Volume number Reporter Page number (Court Year). URL

Reference entry
Thorne v. Deas, 4 Johns. 84 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 1809). https://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/torts/torts-keyed-to-dobbs/contract-and-duty/thorne-v-deas/

In-text citation
(Thorne v. Deas, 1809)

Format variations for specific levels of court are explained in the sections below.
Abbreviations in APA legal citations
Most words are abbreviated in legal citations. This means that a very large number of standard abbreviations exist. Consult resources like this page to familiarize yourself with common abbreviations.

Pages where case information is found online also tend to show the correct form of citation for the case in question. You can check these to make sure you use the right abbreviations.

Note that “v.” (for “versus”) is used between the names of the parties in a case title, though APA recommends “vs.” outside the context of legal citations.
Citing federal court cases
Federal court cases are those that take place at the national level in the U.S.—in the U.S. Supreme Court, a circuit court, or a district court.
U.S. Supreme Court
The Supreme Court is the highest federal court, and its decisions are reported in the United States Reports (abbreviated to “U.S.” in the reference). You don’t need to specify the court in parentheses in this case, since the name of the reporter already makes this clear.

Format
Name v. Name, Volume number U.S. Page number (Year). URL

Reference entry
Bartnicki v. Vopper, 532 U.S. 514 (2001). https://www.oyez.org/cases/2000/99-1687

In-text citation
(Bartnicki v. Vopper, 2001)

Circuit court
Decisions from the U.S. circuit courts are reported in the Federal Reporter. This reporter has appeared in three series; the first is abbreviated as “F.”, the second as “F.2d”, and the third and current series as “F.3d”.

There are 13 circuit courts, so specify which one you’re citing in the parentheses, e.g. “9th Cir.”

Format
Name v. Name, Volume number F. or F.2d or F.3d Page number (Court Year). URL

Reference entry
Lawrence v. Heller, 311 F.2d 225 (10th Cir. 1962). https://openjurist.org/311/f2d/225/lawrence-v-heller

In-text citation
(Lawrence v. Heller, 1962)

District court
Decisions from the U.S. district courts are reported in the Federal Supplements. Like the Federal Reporter, it has appeared in three series, abbreviated as “F. Supp.”, “F. Supp. 2d”, and “F. Supp. 3d”.

There are many different district courts, so specify which one is being cited in the parentheses, e.g. “N.D. Ohio.”

Format
Name v. Name, Volume number F. Supp. or F. Supp. 2d or F. Supp. 3d Page number (Court Year). URL

Reference entry
Sohappy v. Smith, 302 F. Supp. 899 (D. Or. 1969). https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/302/899/2007176/

In-text citation
(Sohappy v. Smith, 1969)

Citing state court cases
State courts are those that operate in specific states rather than federally. The two kinds of state court that are commonly cited are supreme courts and appellate courts. They are both cited in a similar format.

Format
Name v. Name, Volume number Reporter Page number (Court Year). URL

Reference entry
Mullins v. Parkview Hosp., Inc., 865 N.E.2d 608 (Ind. 2007). https://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/torts/torts-keyed-to-dobbs/establishing-a-claim-for-intentional-tort-to-person-or-property/mullins-v-parkview-hospital-inc/

In-text citation
(Mullins v. Parkview Hosp., Inc., 2007)

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a dictionary in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
To cite a dictionary definition in APA Style, start with the author of the dictionary (usually an organization), followed by the publication year, the word you’re citing, the dictionary name, the publisher (if not already listed as author), and the URL.

[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”entry-dictionary”]

How to cite an online dictionary entry
Online dictionaries tend to be continuously updated, so you usually won’t have a specific publication date. In this case, write “n.d.” (no date) in place of the year and include a retrieval date:
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Citation. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://​www.merriam-webster.com/​dictionary/​citation
How to cite a print dictionary
Citing from a print dictionary differs in that you’ll always be using a specific edition with a publication date, so this information should appear in your citation. Do not list the publisher a second time if it is already listed in the author position.

Format
Publisher Name. (Year). Entry name. In Dictionary name (Edition, p. Page number). Publisher.

Reference entry
HarperCollins. (2019). Rehabilitate. In Collins English dictionary (8th ed., p. 672).

In-text citation
(HarperCollins, 2019)

Print dictionaries still don’t usually list authors, although in some specialist dictionaries an author may be listed. If an author for the individual entry is listed, list them in the author position instead of the publisher, and do include the publisher at the end.


How to cite a dissertation in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
The format for citing someone else’s dissertation or thesis in APA Style depends on whether the thesis is available from a database, published somewhere else (e.g. on a university archive or personal website), or unpublished (only available in print form directly from the author or university).

To cite a dissertation or thesis from a database, use the following format. In the square brackets, specify the type of dissertation or thesis and the university. As with other database sources, no URL or DOI is included.

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year). Dissertation title (Publication No. Number) [Type of dissertation/thesis, University Name]. Database Name.

Reference entry
Ford, L. (2015). The use of experiential acceptance in psychotherapy with emerging adults (Publication No. 3731118) [Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

In-text citation
(Ford, 2015)

Citing a dissertation published elsewhere
To cite a dissertation or thesis published in a university archive (often in PDF form) or on a personal website, the format differs in that no publication number is included, and you do list a URL.

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year). Dissertation title [Type of dissertation/thesis, University Name]. Archive Name. URL

Reference entry
Behrens, B. (2020). Linguistic markers of maternal focus within emotional conversations: The role of depressive symptoms and maltreatment [Master’s thesis, University of Notre Dame]. CurateND. https://curate.nd.edu/show/9k41zc80w8w

In-text citation
(Behrens, 2020)

Citing an unpublished dissertation in APA Style
To cite an unpublished dissertation (one you got directly from the author or university in print form), add “Unpublished” to the bracketed description, and list the university at the end of the reference, outside the square brackets.

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year). Dissertation title [Unpublished type of dissertation/thesis]. University Name.

Reference entry
Smith, J. (2020). Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on agoraphobic patients [Unpublished master’s thesis]. University of Amsterdam.

In-text citation
(Smith, 2020)


How to cite a government website or report in APA Style

APA Style doesn’t provide a special format for citing government documents. Instead, you should determine what kind of source you’re dealing with—usually a report or a web page—and use the appropriate format.

To cite a government web page that doesn’t list an individual author, use the following format, listing the name of the government organization in the author position. If the name listed in the author position is the same as the website name (as in the example here), only list it once.

Format
Organization Name. (Year, Month Day). Page title. Site Name. URL

Reference entry
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2021, January 29). Protecting workers: Guidance on mitigating and preventing the spread of COVID-19 in the workplace. https://www.osha.gov/coronavirus/safework

In-text citation
(Occupational Safety and Health Organization, 2021)

Citing government websites with individual authors
When a government web page does list an individual author or authors, list them in the author position, and always include the site name.

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Page title. Site Name. URL

Reference entry
Rutte, M. (2021, January 15). Statement by Prime Minister Mark Rutte on the government’s resignation. Government of the Netherlands. https://www.government.nl/documents/speeches/2021/01/15/statement-by-prime-minister-mark-rutte-on-the-government%E2%80%99s-resignation

In-text citation
(Rutte, 2021)

Citing a government report in APA Style
If the document you are trying to cite is a report (usually labeled as such and often found in PDF form online), the format again differs slightly based on whether individual authors are listed.
Individual authors
To cite a report with one or more named authors, use the format below.

If there is no report number, leave that part out. The publisher should be identified clearly; list the specific organization and any department they are a part of if needed to identify them unambiguously.

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year). Report title: Subtitle (Report No. Number). Publisher Name. URL

Reference entry
Bedford, D. A. D. (2017). Enterprise information architecture: An overview (Report No. WA-RD 896.4). Washington State Department of Transportation. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/896-4.pdf

In-text citation
(Bedford, 2017, p. 14)

Group authors
When a report doesn’t list a specific author, list the organization in the author position.

Any parent agencies necessary to identify the organization clearly can be listed in the publisher position. Otherwise, just omit this part; don’t repeat the same name in the author and publisher positions.

Format
Organization Name. (Year). Report title: Subtitle (Report No. Number). Publisher Name. URL

Reference entry
Department of the Interior Office of Inspector General. (2006). Minerals Management Service’s compliance review process (Report No. C-IN-MMS-0006-2006). United States Department of the Interior. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/GPO-DOI-IGREPORTS-2007-g-0001/pdf/GPO-DOI-IGREPORTS-2007-g-0001.pdf

In-text citation
(Department of the Interior Office of Inspector General, 2006, p. 17)

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a journal article in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
An APA Style citation for a journal article includes the author name(s), publication year, article title, journal name, volume and issue number, page range of the article, and a DOI (if available). Use the buttons below to explore the format.

[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”journal”]

Basic format for an APA journal citation
The article title appears in plain text and sentence case, while the journal name is italicized and in title case (all major words capitalized).

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), Page range. DOI or URL

Reference entry
Mounier-Kuhn, P. (2012). Computer science in French universities: Early entrants and latecomers. Information & Culture: A Journal of History, 47(4), 414–456. https://doi.org/10.7560/IC47402

In-text citation
(Mounier-Kuhn, 2012)

When viewing a journal article online, the required information can usually be found on the access page.

Articles published only in PDF form sometimes provide an e-locator instead of a page range; in this case, include the e-locator in your citation.
Linking to online journal articles
A DOI should always be used where available. Some databases do not list one, but you may still find one by looking for the same article on another database. You don’t need to include the name of the database in your citation.

If no DOI is available and the article was accessed through a database, do not include a URL.

If the article is not from a database, but from another website (e.g. the journal’s own website), you should ideally use a stable URL: this is often provided under a “share” button. Otherwise, copy the URL from your browser’s address bar.
Citing unpublished journal articles
When citing from an article that has not yet been formally published, the format varies depending on whether or not it has already been submitted to a journal. Note that different formats are used for unpublished dissertations and raw data.
Unpublished article
The text of an article which has not yet appeared online or in publication (i.e. which is only available directly from the author) should be cited as an “Unpublished manuscript.” The title is italicized and information about the author’s university is included if available:

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title [Unpublished manuscript]. Department Name, University Name.

Reference entry
Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (2019). Language acquisition among autistic children [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame.

In-text citation
(Smith & Davis, 2019)

Article submitted for publication
An article that has been submitted to a journal but not yet accepted is cited as a “Manuscript submitted for publication.” The title is italicized, and the name of the journal to which it was submitted is not included:

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Department Name, University Name.

Reference entry
Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (2019). Language acquisition among autistic children [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame.

In-text citation
(Smith & Davis, 2019)

Article in press
An article that has been submitted and accepted for publication in a journal is cited as “in press.” Here, the name of the journal is included, university information is omitted, and “in press” is written in place of the year (both in the reference list and the in-text citation):

Format
Last name, Initials. (in press). Article title. Journal Name.

Reference entry
Smith, J. M., & Davis, H. (in press). Language acquisition among autistic children. Journal of Developmental Psychology.

In-text citation
(Smith & Davis, in press)

Special issue of a journal
If you want to cite a special issue of a journal rather than a regular article, the name(s) of the editor(s) and the title of the issue appear in place of the author’s name and article title:

Format
Last name, Initials. (Ed. or Eds.). (Year). Title of issue [Special issue]. Journal Name, Volume(Issue).

Reference entry
Pollak, S. D., Camras, L. A., & Cole, P. M. (Eds.). (2019). New perspectives on the development of human emotion [Special issue]. Developmental Psychology, 55(9).

In-text citation
(Pollak et al., 2019)

Note that if you want to cite an individual article from the special issue, it can just be cited in the basic format for journal articles.

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a law in APA Style

To cite federal laws (also commonly referred to as statutes or acts) in APA Style, include the name of the law, “U.S.C.” (short for United States Code), the title and section of the code where the law appears, the year, and optionally the URL.

The year included is when the law was published in the source consulted, not when it was passed, amended, or supplemented.

Format
Name of Law, Title number U.S.C. § Section number (Year). URL

Reference entry
Anti-Smuggling Act, 19 U.S.C. § 1701 (1935). https://www.loc.gov/item/uscode1958-004019005/

In-text citation
(Anti-Smuggling Act, 1935)

Symbols and abbreviations in law citations
The United States Code and most other compilations of laws are divided into parts called “titles,” and within those titles, sections.

No symbol is used for the title in your reference, but the section number is preceded by the symbol §. To insert the section symbol in Word, click on “Insert,” “Symbol,” “More symbols,” “Special characters,” and then find it in the list under “section.”

When a law is spread across multiple consecutive sections, the term “et seq.” (Latin for “and following”) is added after the initial section number. It is always italicized and followed by a period.
Reference entry with “et seq.”Fess–Kenyon Act, 29 U.S.C. § 31 et seq. (1920).
Citing federal statutes with the public law number
A law may also have a public law number. This is not used in the citation, except in special cases: when the law is not (yet) included in the United States Code, or when it is spread across non-consecutive parts of the Code.
Laws not included in the Code
A law that has not been codified (published in the United States Code) should be cited using its public law number and information about wherever it was published.

The law below was published in the United States Statutes at Large, which is abbreviated to “Stat.”

Format
Name of Law, Pub. L. No. Number, Volume number Source Page number (Year). URL

Reference entry
Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, Pub. L. No. 111-2, 123 Stat. 5 (2009). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-111publ2/pdf/PLAW-111publ2.pdf

In-text citation
(Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, 2009)

Laws spread across different sections
When an act is codified across different non-consecutive sections of the Code, it is also cited using the public law number and information about its location in the Statutes at Large.

The example below was codified in titles 2, 28, and 42 of the Code, so it is cited using the public law number instead.

Format
Name of Law, Pub. L. No. Number, Volume number Source Page number (Year). URL

Reference entry
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Pub. L. No. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241 (1964). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATUTE-78/pdf/STATUTE-78-Pg241.pdf

In-text citation
(Civil Rights Act, 1964)

Citing state laws
The laws and statutes of individual states are cited in a similar format to federal laws where possible. “U.S.C.” is replaced with an abbreviation for the law code of that state, and titles and sections are presented in the same way. However, some state codes use article or chapter numbers instead of or in addition to section numbers, or do not use titles.

Make sure to adapt your reference to the standards of the state. For example, the title for a law from the Virginia Code is included with the section number, separated by a hyphen, as shown in this example.

Format
Name of Law, Title number Source § Section number (Year). URL

Reference entry
Community Action Act, Va. Code Ann. § 2.2-5400 (2020). https://law.lis.virginia.gov/vacodepopularnames/community-action-act/

In-text citation
(Community Action Act, 2020)

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a magazine article in APA Style

To cite a print magazine article in APA Style, list the author’s name, the publication date, the article title, the magazine name, the volume and issue numbers if available, and the page range of the article.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine Name, Volume(Issue), page range.

Reference entry
Mogelson, L. (2021, January 25). The storm. The New Yorker, 5–12.

In-text citation
(Mogelson, 2021)

[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”article-magazine”]

The same format is used for a magazine found in a database, since APA recommends against including database information in your reference entries.

Citing online magazine articles
To cite an online magazine article, follow the print format but add the URL at the end. Volume and issue numbers, as well as the page range, may be omitted if they’re not stated anywhere.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine Name, Volume(Issue), page range. URL

Reference entry
Tokarczuk, O. (2021, January 25). Eccentricity as feminism. The Paris Review. https://www.theparisreview.org/blog/2021/01/25/eccentricity-as-feminism

In-text citation
(Tokarczuk, 2021)

More academic magazines may list a DOI, much like a journal article. Always use a DOI if one is available; otherwise, try to find a stable URL on the page (e.g. under a “Share” button).

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine Name, Volume(Issue), page range. DOI

Reference entry
Piller, C. (2021, January 22). Disgraced COVID-19 studies are still routinely cited. Science, 371(6527), 331–332. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.371.6527.331

In-text citation
(Piller, 2021)

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a movie in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
To cite a movie in APA Style, list its director(s) in the author position and the production company as publisher. The title is written in sentence case and italicized, followed by the label “Film” in square brackets.

The in-text citation includes the last name of the director, and the year. If you are referring to a specific quote or scene from the movie, add a timestamp to direct the reader to the relevant part.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Director). (Year). Movie title [Film]. Production Company.

Reference entry
Scott, R. (Director). (1979). Alien [Film]. Brandywine Productions.

In-text citation
(Scott, 1979, 0:45:14)

The citation format for TV shows is slightly different.

Citing movies in different formats
In general, you don’t need to specify the format in which you watched the film. However, if you are discussing a specific version of the film (for example, if you refer to the special features of a DVD), you can specify the version in the citation.
Lanthimos, Y. (Director). (2015). The lobster [Film; DVD release]. Film4.
Where to find source information for a movie citation
The source information you need for your citation can usually be found in the movie’s end credits or on the packaging for a physical release. Otherwise, you can check on IMDb.

Information on the production company can be found further down this page, under the heading “Company Credits.”


How to cite a newspaper article in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
An APA Style newspaper citation includes the author, the publication date, the headline of the article, and the name of the newspaper in italics.

Print newspaper citations include a page number or range; online newspaper citations include a URL.
[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”article-newspaper”]

Citing newspaper articles in print
Printed newspapers are sometimes divided into sections, which are identified by a letter before the page number (e.g. A1, B4). Always include the letters when page numbers are formatted in this way.

Newspaper articles may also appear on discontinuous pages (for example, an article which begins on the front page but continues on page 20). Make sure to only cite the relevant pages, separating different pages and page ranges with commas.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Name, pages.

Reference entry
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, A1, A4.

In-text citation
(Schwartz, 1993)

Note that the same format can be used for a newspaper in PDF form, provided page numbers are visible in the PDF.
Citing online newspaper articles
If you accessed the article on the newspaper’s website, include a URL instead of page numbers.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Name. URL

Reference entry
Schwartz, F., & McBride, C. (2019, November 18). Trump administration says Israeli settlements aren’t illegal. The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/trump-administration-to-say-israeli-settlements-arent-illegal-11574104691

In-text citation
(Schwartz & McBride, 2019)

Online-only news sites
Don’t use the newspaper citation format for articles on news sites, such as Reuters and BBC News, that are not linked to a print newspaper.

Instead, use the format of a website citation. The article title is italicized, and the name of the site is written in plain text.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Site Name. URL

Reference entry
Ahmad, J., & Shalizi, H. (2019, November 19). Taliban frees two Western prisoners, U.S. sees hope for wider Afghan peace. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-afghanistan-taliban/u-s-australian-hostages-freed-by-afghan-taliban-in-swap-idUSKBN1XT0GF

In-text citation
(Ahmad & Shalizi, 2019)

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a patent in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
A patent is a legal document acknowledging an invention as the intellectual property of its inventor. Though they fall under legal materials, references for patents follow standard APA Style, rather than the legal style used for things like court cases and laws.

To cite a patent in APA Style, list the name of the inventor, the year it was issued (in parentheses), the title of the patent (in italics), the patent number, the name of the issuing body, and the URL if available.

Format
Inventor name, Initials. (Year). Title of patent (Country/Region Patent No. Number). Issuing Body. URL

Reference list
Ghatak, S. (2019). Immunization testing system (U.S. Patent No. 10,788,482). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://rb.gy/ik0fb0

In-text citation
(Ghatak, 2019)

Where to find patent information
Intellectual property organizations generally keep a comprehensive record of their patents online. For example, try the website of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. To find patent offices across the world, check here.

Once you’ve found the relevant patent, all the information you need should be displayed:

Note that the URL can end up being quite long, as here; use a URL shortener if necessary.

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a PDF in APA Style

APA Style doesn’t provide a specific citation format for PDFs. Instead, you’ll have to determine what kind of source the PDF is (e.g., a book, a journal article) and cite it in the appropriate format.

If you’re not sure what type of source you’re dealing with, look for clues in the PDF. For example, you might find the name of the larger publication the PDF comes from, which you can then look up to see what kind of source it is. If you received the PDF from an instructor, you can always ask them to clarify how to cite it.

This article explains the formats for several source types you might encounter in PDF form below.
Citing a book in PDF form
Books, or extracts from books, may be encountered online in PDF form. A book will generally include a copyright page with the details of publication. To cite an online book like this, list the usual information for a book, followed by a URL or DOI at the end.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Book title. Publisher. DOI or URL

Reference entry
Sedgwick, E. K. (2003). Touching feeling: Affect, pedagogy, performativity. Duke University Press. http://www.bu.edu/honoringeve/files/2009/09/paranoid-reading-and-reparative-reading.pdf

In-text citation
(Sedgwick, 2003)

Citing a journal article
Journal articles will usually indicate the volume, issue, and name of the journal they’re published in.

Journal articles published as PDFs often use an e-locator (the letter “e” followed by a series of numbers, e.g. e1034762) instead of a page range to identify their location within the journal. If the article cited lacks a page range, use the e-locator instead.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), Page range. or e-locator. DOI or URL

Reference entry
McCabe, D. P., & Castel, A. D. (2008). Seeing is believing: The effect of brain images on judgements of scientific reasoning. Cognition, 107(1), 343–352. http://castel.bol.ucla.edu/publications/McCabeCastelCogn.pdf

In-text citation
(McCabe & Castel, 2008)

Citing a dissertation or thesis
A dissertation or thesis published online will often be in PDF form. These will generally feature a title page clearly marking them as a dissertation or thesis.

List the author, date, and title, followed by the type of document (e.g. “Master’s thesis”) and university in square brackets, the name of the website, and finally the URL.

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year). Dissertation title [Type of dissertation/thesis, University Name]. Archive Name. URL

Reference entry
Behrens, B. (2020). Linguistic markers of maternal focus within emotional conversations: The role of depressive symptoms and maltreatment [Master’s thesis, University of Notre Dame]. CurateND. https://curate.nd.edu/show/9k41zc80w8w

In-text citation
(Behrens, 2020)

Citing a report
Reports are frequently accessed online in PDF form. They will generally clearly identify the organization they’re published by and frequently list a report number. They may also have “report” in the title.

Include the title, author, date, publisher, report number (if available), and the URL.

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year). Report title: Subtitle (Report No. number). Publisher Name. URL

Reference entry
Bedford, D. A. D. (2017). Enterprise information architecture: An overview (Report No. WA-RD 896.4). Washington State Department of Transportation. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/896-4.pdf

In-text citation
(Bedford, 2017)

Citing a white paper
A white paper is a type of report presenting the ideas, policy, or proposals of the organization that issued it (e.g., a government or business) concerning a particular topic.

The format for citing one is similar to that for a report, except that white papers generally don’t have report numbers, and the label “White paper” in square brackets appears after the title instead.

Format
Organization Name. (Year). White paper title: Subtitle [White paper]. Publisher Name. URL

Reference entry
Department of Health and Social Care. (2012). Caring for our future: Reforming care and support [White paper]. Crown. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/136422/White-Paper-Caring-for-our-future-reforming-care-and-support-PDF-1580K.pdf

In-text citation
(Department of Health and Social Care, 2012)

Citing a brochure
Brochures and pamphlets are small, informative promotional texts designed, for example, to introduce an exhibition or advertise a range of products or services.

Brochures encountered in PDF form are cited in a similar format to reports. Note that when the organization listed as author is the same as the publisher (as in the example below), you should only list it once.

Format
Organization Name. (Year). Title [Brochure]. or [Pamphlet]. Publisher. URL

Reference entry
Museum of Modern Art. (2004). Projects 81: Jean Shin [Brochure]. https://www.moma.org/d/pdfs/W1siZiIsIjIwMTYvMDcvMjkvM3h6ajlsbWNtaF9wcm9qZWN0czgxX2Jyb2NodXJlLnBkZiJdXQ/projects81_brochure.pdf?sha=f2f2e81f2cbf0514

In-text citation
(Museum of Modern Art, 2004)

Citing a newspaper or magazine article
When you encounter a newspaper or magazine article in PDF form, the page numbers will generally be available, so that you can just cite it in the format for a print article.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Name, pages.

Reference entry
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, A1, A4.

In-text citation
(Schwartz, 1993)


How to cite a podcast in APA Style

To cite a podcast episode in APA Style, list the host as author, followed by the label “(Host),” the date, the episode title and number, the description “[Audio podcast episode],” the name of the podcast, the production company, and a URL if available.

If you listened through an app and don’t know the URL, omit it. If episodes are not numbered, this element can also be omitted. A timestamp can be used in an in-text citation to highlight a specific moment from the episode when quoting.

Format
Host last name, Initials. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (No. Episode number) [Audio podcast episode]. In Podcast name. Production Company. URL

Reference entry
Vogt, P. J., & Goldman, A. (Hosts). (2016, May 12). On the inside (No. 64) [Audio podcast episode]. In Reply all. Gimlet. https://gimletmedia.com/shows/reply-all/brho4v/64-on-the-inside

In-text citation
(Vogt & Goldman, 2016, 11:30)

Citing an entire podcast series in APA Style
If you don’t refer to a specific episode but to a podcast series more generally, it’s appropriate for your reference entry to cover the whole series.

In this case, you should usually still list the host as author, but you have the option of listing the executive producers instead (e.g. if hosts vary by episode). For the date, list a range of years showing what period the series ran for.

Format
Host last name, Initials. (Host). or Producer last name, Initials. (Producer). (Year range). Podcast name [Audio podcast]. Production Company. URL

Reference entry
Lechtenberg, S. (Producer). (2002–present). Radiolab [Audio podcast]. WNYC. https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab

In-text citation
(Lechtenberg, 2002–present)

Citing a video podcast
A podcast that takes the form of a video is cited very similarly to an audio podcast. The only difference is that you write “Video podcast” in square brackets rather than “Audio podcast.”

Format
Host last name, Initials. (Host). or Producer last name, Initials. (Producer). (Year range). Podcast name [Video podcast]. Production Company. URL

Reference entry
Rogan, J. (Host). (2009–present). The Joe Rogan experience [Video podcast]. Spotify. https://open.spotify.com/show/4rOoJ6Egrf8K2IrywzwOMk?si=M5mpB0p_Su6Kd2LQqFX08g

In-text citation
(Rogan, 2009–present)

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a PowerPoint in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
To reference a PowerPoint presentation in APA Style, include the name of the author (whoever presented the PowerPoint), the date it was presented, the title (italicized), “PowerPoint slides” in square brackets, the name of the department and university, and the URL where the PowerPoint can be found.

Format
Author name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). PowerPoint title [PowerPoint slides]. Department Name, University Name. URL

Reference list
Simonton, D. K. (2013). The mad-genius controversy [PowerPoint slides]. College of Education, University of Iowa. https://simonton.faculty.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/243/2015/08/IowaDeltaMadGenius.pdf

In-text citation
(Simonton, 2013)

If the PowerPoint is not accessible to your readers, cite it as a personal communication instead. Note that to cite a video of a presentation (e.g. a TED Talk) or a quotation from a speech, different formats are used.
Citing a PowerPoint your readers can access
PowerPoint presentations should only be included in the reference list if your reader can access them for themselves.
PowerPoints on password-protected platforms
A login is often required to access a file on your university’s LMS (e.g. Blackboard, Canvas). In these cases, the URL included should be the login page rather than the specific location of the PowerPoint.

Reference list
Johnson, F. (2018, September 20). Introduction to classics [PowerPoint slides]. Faculty of Classics, Oxford University. https://login.canvas.ox.ac.uk/

In-text citation
(Johnson, 2018)

PowerPoints on public sites
With slides that are available on a public site, rather than from your university, replace the department and university name with the name of the website.

Reference list
Familian, S. (2017, February 17). Visual design with data [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/sfamilian/visual-design-with-data-feb-2017/10-WHATS_GOOD_DATA_DESIGNROLLEDUP10NINJA_TIPPivot

In-text citation
(Familian, 2017)

The same format can be used for other kinds of slides or lecture notes. Just replace “PowerPoint slides” with an appropriate description.

Reference list
Scribbr. (2020). APA 7th edition: The most notable changes [Google Slides]. Google Drive. https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/19wGvksFKwvVEkxyyqpNqPp6sQzga96d3tt85xvqUqhU/view

In-text citation
(Scribbr, 2020)

Citing a PowerPoint your readers can’t access
If your readers won’t be able to access the PowerPoint you want to cite, it should instead be cited as a personal communication.

This often depends on who will be reading your paper. For example:

If you’re writing a paper for class, and you want to cite a PowerPoint that’s available on your university’s Blackboard site, you can use the standard format, because your teacher can access the slides.
If you want to cite the same PowerPoint in a paper you’re submitting to a journal, you’ll have to cite it as a personal communication, because the journal’s readers can’t access it.

Personal communications are not included in the reference list; just mention them in parentheses in the text.
In a class lecture, Smith stated that the field is undergoing a “revolution” (personal communication, January 14, 2019).
Citing information quoted in a PowerPoint
If a lecturer included an interesting quote or statistic in their slides that you want to cite, it’s best to find the original source rather than citing the PowerPoint itself.

This allows both you and the reader to see the information in context. Only cite second-hand information from a PowerPoint if you’re unable to access the original source.

The source of the information will generally be listed in the PowerPoint itself or on a handout. With this, you can locate the original source online or at your university’s library. If the source isn’t stated in the presentation, try asking the lecturer for more information.

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a press release in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
To cite a press release in APA Style, list the organization responsible, the date of publication, the title in italics, “Press release” in square brackets, and the URL.

Format
Organization Name. (Year Month Day). Press release title [Press release]. URL

Reference entry
American Psychological Association. (2020, November 17). Psychologists report large increase in demand for anxiety, depression treatment [Press release]. https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2020/11/anxiety-depression-treatment

In-text citation
(American Psychological Association, 2020)

[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”press-release”]


How to cite a report in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
Reports may be published by governments, task groups, or other organizations. To reference a report with an individual author, include the author’s name and initials, the report title (italicized), the report number, the organization that published it, and the URL (if accessed online, e.g. as a PDF).

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year). Report title: Subtitle (Report No. number). Publisher name. URL

Reference list
Bedford, D. A. D. (2017). Enterprise information architecture: An overview (Report No. WA-RD 896.4). Washington State Department of Transportation. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/896-4.pdf

In-text citation
(Bedford, 2017, p. 12)

Note that brochures are cited in a similar format. You can easily create accurate APA citations using our free Citation Generator.
Generate APA citations

Report with multiple authors
When a report has multiple authors, up to 20 should be listed in the reference.
Wang, Y., Ash, J., Zhuang, Y., Zhibin, L. Zeng, Z., Hajbabaie, A., Hajibabai, L., Tajalli, M. (2019). Understanding opportunities with connected vehicles in the smart cities context (Report No. WA-RD 885.1). Washington State Department of Transportation. https://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/885-1.pdf
If the report has 21 or more authors, list the first 19, then an ellipsis, then the last listed author:
Brian, B., Caulfield, J., Hanes, R., Hunter, C., Hughes, C., Mann, M., Newes, E., Douglas, A., Baldwin, S., Baker, E., Clarke, L., Gabriel, S., Henrion, M., Klemun, M., Marangoni, G., Nemet, G., Newman, A., Paich, M., Popper, S., Way, R., . . . Zhang, F. (2020). . . .
With in-text citations, list up to two authors. For three or more, list the first followed by “et al.”

2 authors
(Bedford & Caulfield, 2012)

3+ authors
(Davis et al., 2015)

Report with organization as author
Sometimes, reports do not list individual authors, only the organization responsible. In these cases, list the organization in the author position.

Reference list
Europeana Task Force on Metadata Quality. (2015). Report and recommendations from the Task Force on Metadata Quality. Europeana. https://pro.europeana.eu/files/Europeana_Professional/Europeana_Network/metadata-quality-report.pdf

In-text citation
(Europeana Task Force on Metadata Quality, 2015)

This sometimes results in the name of the author and publisher being identical. Omit the second mention of the organization in this case.

Reference list
Kellogg Company. (2019). 2019 annual report. https://www.annualreports.com/HostedData/AnnualReports/PDF/NYSE_K_2019.pdf

In-text citation
(Kellogg Company, 2019)

Where to find the report number
Many reports are associated with a specific number. If a report has a number, it will typically be listed in the database where you found the report.

It will also generally appear on the cover or title page of the report itself.

A report number should always be included when available, but if a report doesn’t have one, you can just leave this part out.

[FAQ-article]


How to cite a speech in APA Style

How you cite a speech in APA Style depends on the format in which you heard it.

For an audio recording of a speech found online, list the speaker, the date when the speech took place, the title in italics, “Speech audio recording” in square brackets, the website, and the URL. You can use a timestamp to specify a location in the in-text citation.

Format
Speaker last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Speech title [Speech audio recording]. Website Name. URL

Reference entry
Kennedy, J. F. (1961, January 20). Presidential inaugural address [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkinaugural.htm

In-text citation
(Kennedy, 1961, 01:45)

The formats for citing a paper presentation from a conference and for citing speeches that don’t fit any of these categories are shown below. The formats for citing a TED Talk or a speech uploaded to YouTube are explained elsewhere.
Citing a paper presentation
To cite a paper presentation from an academic conference, use the following format. List the date as the range of dates across which the conference took place.

Format
Author name, Initials. (Year, Month Day–Day). Paper title [Paper presentation]. Conference Name, City, State, Country. URL

Reference entry
Jang, S. (2019, August 8–11). Deconstructing the opposition of natural/arbitrary in Coleridge’s theory of language [Paper presentation]. NASSR 2019: Romantic Elements, Chicago, IL, United States.

In-text citation
(Jang, 2019)

However, if you’re citing a published conference paper from a journal or book, use the format of that source type.
Citing speeches as personal communications
Speeches that cannot be accessed by the reader in some sort of recording or transcript and were not part of a conference are cited as personal communications.

This is the format used in APA Style for sources the reader won’t be able to access themselves. Because they are not retrievable, personal communications don’t appear in the reference list; they’re just cited in the text.
Personal communication citationThe topic of genetic modification was covered in the speech (H. So, personal communication, February 19, 2019).


How to cite a survey in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
When referring to the content of a survey you conducted yourself in APA Style, you don’t need a formal citation or reference entry. When citing someone else’s survey data, follow the format of the source type it appears in.
Referring to your own survey or questionnaire
When your research involved conducting a survey and you want to quote from it (either the answers or the prompts/questions) in your paper, you don’t need to cite it. The survey is part of your research and not a previously published source.

Typically, you will include survey results in an appendix to your paper. If that’s the case, you can refer to the appendix the first time you quote from it in the main text.
Referring to an appendixOne participant stated that they found the intervention “unobtrusive” (see Appendix A for full survey responses).
If your survey is not included in an appendix, don’t include any kind of citation.
Citing data from a published survey
If it’s not your own survey you’re referring to but a previously published one, you should provide a citation. Survey data may be published in a journal article or book, in which case you should use the relevant format.

Survey data accessible in a database is cited in the following format.

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year). Survey title [Data set]. Publisher. URL or DOI

Reference entry
United States Census Bureau. (2009). American housing survey 2007: Metropolitan survey (ICPSR 24501) [Data set]. United States Department of Commerce. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR24501.v1

In-text citation
(United States Census Bureau, 2009)

Citing unpublished raw data
If the survey data you want to cite hasn’t been published in any form (i.e., you acquired it directly from another researcher or organization), the format is slightly different.

Raw data might be untitled, in which case you should supply a description in square brackets. If it is titled, still include the description “Unpublished raw data” in square brackets after the title. If the data comes from a particular institution, include this at the end.

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year). [Unpublished raw data on Topic]. or Title [Unpublished raw data]. University/Organization Name.

Reference entry
Dewey, F. (2020). [Unpublished raw data on remote work’s effects on employees’ self-reported well-being]. University College London.

In-text citation
(Dewey, 2020)


How to cite a TED Talk in APA Style

To cite a TED Talk in APA Style, the format differs slightly depending on whether you viewed it on TED’s website or on YouTube.

To cite a TED Talk from the TED site, list the speaker as author, give the date listed on the site, include “Video” in square brackets after the title, list the publisher as “TED Conferences,” and give the URL.

Format
Speaker last name, Initials. (Year, Month). Talk title [Video]. TED Conferences. URL

Reference entry
Sivaram, V. (2020, October). India’s historic opportunity to industrialize using clean energy [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/varun_sivaram_india_s_historic_opportunity_to_industrialize_using_clean_energy

In-text citation
(Sivaram, 2020)

Citing a TED Talk viewed on YouTube
If you viewed the TED Talk on YouTube, the format differs slightly. The uploader (usually TED) is listed as author, the date given is when the video was uploaded to YouTube, and YouTube is listed as the publisher.

Format
Channel name. (Year, Month Day). Talk title [Video]. YouTube. URL

Reference entry
TED. (2020, November 3). The radical act of choosing common ground | Nisha Anand [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XZfKdlIRqYk

In-text citation
(TED, 2020)

APA in-text citations for TED Talks
Timestamps are used in place of page numbers when you need your in-text citation to identify a specific moment in the talk—for example, when you quote something the speaker said.
In-text citation with timestamp(Sivaram, 2020, 1:04)
When your in-text citation doesn’t include the name of the speaker (i.e. when you cite from YouTube), it’s generally useful to name the speaker in the text, so that you’re not just referring to “TED.”
Specifying the speaker in the textJustice reform advocate Nisha Anand opens her talk with the story of her family’s experiences during the Partition of India (TED, 2020, 1:59).
[FAQ-article]


How to cite a TV show in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
To cite an episode of a TV show in APA Style, list the writer(s) and director(s) as authors, the date when the episode aired, the name of the episode, the season and episode number, “TV series episode” in square brackets, the executive producers of the whole series, the title of the series, and the production company or companies.

Format
Writer last name, Initials. (Writer), & Director last name, Initials. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Episode name (Season Number, Episode Number) [TV series episode]. In Executive producer initials. Last name (Executive Producer), Series name. Production Company.

Reference entry
Kogen, J. (Writer), Wolodarsky, W. (Writer), & Kirkland, M. (Director). (1993, March 11). Last exit to Springfield (Season 4, Episode 17) [TV series episode]. In J. L. Brooks, M. Groening, A. Jean, M. Reiss, S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Productions.

In-text citation
(Kogen et al., 1993)

Citing an entire TV series in APA Style
The format for citing an entire TV series is more straightforward. The executive producers are listed as authors, and the range of years given is for the series’ entire run.

Format
Executive producer last name, Initials. (Executive Producer). (Year range). Series name [TV series]. Production Company.

Reference entry
Chase, D., Grey, B., Green, R., Burgess, M., Landress, I. S., Winter, T., & Weiner, M. (Executive Producers). (1999–2007). The Sopranos [TV series]. Chase Films; Brad Grey Television; HBO Entertainment.

In-text citation
(Chase et al., 1999–2007)

Authors and production companies for TV shows
When listing writers and directors for an episode, each person listed should be individually labeled as either “Writer” or “Director.” If one person combined both roles, write “Writer & Director” in the parentheses.

Don’t label them collectively, as it can cause confusion.

Kogen, J., Wolodarsky, W., & Kirkland, M. (Writers & Director).
Kogen, J., Wolodarsky, W. (Writers), & Kirkland, M. (Director).
Kogen, J. (Writer), Wolodarsky, W. (Writer), & Kirkland, M. (Director).

Executive producers are labeled collectively, since they all share the same role.

J. L. Brooks (Executive Producer), M. Groening (Executive Producer), A. Jean (Executive Producer) …
J. L. Brooks, M. Groening, A. Jean, M. Reiss, S. Simon (Executive Producers)

No role specifications are included in in-text citations, and “et al.” is used when more than three total contributors are listed.
In-text citations

(Kogen et al., 1993)
(Chase et al., 1999–2007)

Finally, note that when a series is produced by multiple production companies, you should list them all, separated by semicolons.
Listing multiple production companiesChase Films; Brad Grey Television; HBO Entertainment.


How to cite a tweet in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
To reference a tweet in APA Style, include the author’s name and username, the date the tweet was posted, the text of the tweet in italics, “Tweet” in square brackets, “Twitter,” and the URL.

For tweets longer than 20 words, only include the first 20 in your reference.

Format
Author name, Initials [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of tweet [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Reference list
Davidson, L. [@lisa_b_davidson]. (2021, March 22). Has anyone ever written about why some initials work as names in English (KC, JP, and most things followed by [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/lisa_b_davidson/status/1374036090038988802

In-text citation
(Davidson, 2021)

Where to find the information for your citation
The information you need to cite a tweet is easy to find on the site.

Author names and usernames
Write the author name in the usual inverted format, not how it appears on Twitter. If the author is an organization, list the organization in the author position. The username is always included, preceded by “@” and using the same capitalization as on the site:

Reference list
American Civil Liberties Union [@ACLU]. (2020, October 20). VICTORY: Georgia will have additional dropboxes this cycle in DeKalb County. There are 14 days left until Election Day, and [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/ACLU/status/1318651204277329928

In-text citation
(American Civil Liberties Union, 2020)

Multimedia content in tweets
If the tweet contains any additional content besides words (e.g. images, video, links, polls), this should be stated in a separate set of square brackets before “[Tweet].” For example, the following tweet contains a link to an article:
American Psychological Association [@APA]. (2020, September 29). Do you know how to cite a book chapter in your work? Do you know when you should cite an [Thumbnail with link attached]. [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/APA/status/1310928070283493376
This tweet contains an image:
Gladwell, M. [@Gladwell]. (2020, September 20). Setting up my new office. . . There’s no school like old school. [Image attached]. [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/Gladwell/status/1307724693718339588
Citing a full Twitter profile
If you want to cite an entire Twitter profile rather than an individual tweet, the format is slightly different. You’ll list the year as “n.d.” (no date) and include a retrieval date, since the contents of the profile can change over time.

Reference list
Pinker, S. [@sapinker]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved September 29, 2020, from https://twitter.com/sapinker

In-text citation
(Pinker, n.d.)

Citing protected tweets or DMs
Some content on Twitter is private: tweets from protected accounts (accounts only accessible to approved followers) and DMs (direct messages) from any account. Because the reader won’t be able to access this content, it should be cited as personal communications.

Personal communications don’t appear in your reference list. Just refer to them in parentheses in the text, giving the date of the communication. You can specify the format (“protected tweet,” “direct message”) or just write “personal communication.”
Jonassen stated that there were no further plans for the project (direct message, July 20, 2020).
[FAQ-article]


How to cite a webpage with no author, date, or title in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
Webpage citations in APA Style consist of five components: author, publication date, title, website name, and URL.

Unfortunately, some of these components are sometimes missing. For instance, there may be no author or publication date. This article explains how to handle different kinds and combinations of missing information.

What’s missing?
Solution

Nothing

No author
Use title in place of author.

No date
Use “n.d.” (“no date”) in place of date.

No title
Describe the source in brackets.

No author or date
Use title in place of author; use “n.d.” in place of date.

No author or title
Use bracketed description in place of author.

No date or title
Use “n.d.” in place of date; describe the source in brackets.

No author, date, or title
Use bracketed description in place of author; use “n.d.” in place of date.

[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”webpage”]

Basic webpage citation format
You can explore the basic citation format for a webpage using the example generator below.

No author

Format
Page title. (Year, Month Day). Website Name. URL

Reference list
APA citation guidelines. (2020, October 30). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/

In-text citation
(APA Citation Guidelines, 2020)

No date

Format
Last name, Initials. (n.d.). Page title. Website Name. URL

Reference list
Streefkerk, R. (n.d.). APA citation guidelines. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/

In-text citation
(Streefkerk, n.d.)

No title

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). [Description of page]. Website Name. URL

Reference list
Streefkerk, R. (2020, October 30). [Article about APA citations]. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/

In-text citation
(Streefkerk, 2020)

No author or date

Format
Page title. (n.d.). Website Name. URL

Reference list
APA citation guidelines (n.d.). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/

In-text citation
(APA Citation Guidelines, n.d.)

No author or title

Format
[Description of page]. (Year, Month Day). Website Name. URL

Reference list
[Article about APA citations]. (2020, October 30). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/

In-text citation
([Article about APA citations], 2020)

No date or title

Format
Last name, initials. (n.d.). [Description of page]. Website Name. URL

Reference list
Streefkerk, R. (n.d.). [Article about APA citations]. Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/

In-text citation
(Streefkerk, n.d.)

No author, date, or title

Format
[Description of page]. (n.d.). Website Name. URL

Reference list
[Article about APA citations]. (n.d.). Scribbr. https://www.scribbr.com/category/apa-style/

In-text citation
([Article about APA citations], n.d.)

Don’t forget: Our APA Citation Generator can handle all of these exceptions for you automatically!
Try the APA Citation Generator


How to cite a website in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.

If you are citing an online version of a print publication (e.g. a newspaper, magazine, or dictionary), use the same format as you would for print, with a URL added at the end. Formats differ for online videos (e.g. TED Talks), images, and dissertations.

Use the buttons below to explore the format.

[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”webpage”]

Citing an entire website
When you refer to a website in your text without quoting or paraphrasing from a specific part of it, you don’t need a formal citation. Instead, you can just include the URL in parentheses after the name of the site:
One of the most popular social media sites, Instagram (http://instagram.com), allows users to share images and videos.
For this kind of citation, you don’t need to include the website on the reference page. However, if you’re citing a specific page or article from a website, you will need a formal in-text citation and reference list entry.
How to cite online articles
Various kinds of articles appear online, and how you cite them depends on where the article appears.
Online articles from newspapers, magazines, and blogs
Articles appearing in online versions of print publications (e.g. newspapers and magazines) are cited like their print versions, but with an added URL.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Publication Name. URL

Reference entry
Greenhouse, S. (2020, July 30). The coronavirus pandemic has intensified systemic economic racism against black Americans. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/the-pandemic-has-intensified-systemic-economic-racism-against-black-americans

In-text citation
(Greenhouse, 2020)

The same format is used for blog posts. Just include the blog name where you would usually put the name of the magazine or newspaper.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Blog Name. URL

Reference entry
Lee, C. (2020, February 19). A tale of two reference formats. APA Style Blog. https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/two-reference-formats

In-text citation
(Lee, 2020)

Articles from online-only news sites
For articles from news sites without print equivalents (e.g. BBC News, Reuters), italicize the name of the article and not the name of the site.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Site Name. URL

Reference entry
Rowlatt, J. (2020, October 19). Could cold water hold a clue to a dementia cure? BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/health-54531075

In-text citation
(Rowlatt, 2020)

Websites with no author
When a web page does not list an individual author, it can usually be attributed to an organization or government. If this results in the author name being identical to the site name, omit the site name, as in the example below.

Format
Organization Name. (Year, Month Day). Page title. Site Name. URL

Reference entry
Scribbr. (n.d.). Academic proofreading & editing service. https://www.scribbr.com/proofreading-editing/

In-text citation
(Scribbr, n.d.)

If you can’t identify any author at all, replace the author name with the title of the page or article.

In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it is in plain text in the reference list, or in italics if it is in italics in the reference list. Note that title case is used for the title here, unlike in the reference list. Shorten the title to the first few words if necessary.

Format
Page title. (Year, Month Day). Site Name. URL

Reference entry
The countdown: A prophecy, crowds and a TikTok takedown. (2020, October 19). BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/election-us-2020-54596667

In-text citation
(The Countdown, 2019)

Websites with no date
When a web page or article does not list a publication or revision date, replace the date with “n.d.” (“no date”) in all citations.

If an online source is likely to change over time, it is recommended to include the date on which you accessed it.

Format
Last name, Initials. (n.d.). Page title. Site Name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

Reference entry
University of Amsterdam. (n.d.). About the UvA. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html

In-text citation
(University of Amsterdam, n.d.)

How to cite from social media
As social media posts are usually untitled, use the first 20 words of the post, in italics, as a title. Also include any relevant information about the type of post and any multimedia aspects (e.g. videos, images, sound, links) in square brackets.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). First 20 words of post [Description of multimedia aspects] [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

Reference entry
American Psychological Association. (2020, October 14). When adjusted for inflation, the largest median salary increase between 2014 and 2018 was for psychology doctorate recipients who expected [Link with thumbnail attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/AmericanPsychologicalAssociation/posts/10158794205682579

In-text citation
(American Psychological Association, 2020)

On some social media sites (such as Twitter), users go by usernames instead of or in addition to their real names. Where the author’s real name is known, include it, along with their username in square brackets:
Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2020, September 7). This Labor Day, let’s thank all those who’ve kept our country going this year—nurses, teachers, delivery drivers, food service [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/1303015313320050688
In some cases, you’ll want to cite a whole social media profile instead of a specific post. In these cases, include an access date, because a profile will obviously change over time:
Dorsey, J. [@jack]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 14, 2019, from https://twitter.com/jack
[FAQ-article]


How to cite a YouTube video in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
To cite a YouTube video in APA Style, you include the person or organization that uploaded it, their channel name (if different from their real name), the upload date, the video title (italicized), “Video” in square brackets, the name of the site,  and a link to the video.

Note that the same format works for other video sites like Vimeo; just replace “YouTube” with the name of whatever site the video is from. TV shows are cited differently.

You can also use our free APA citation generator to generate YouTube citations in APA Style.
[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”video”]

Where to find citation information for a YouTube video
The information you’ll need for your citation is easy to locate on YouTube. It’s located just below the video, as shown in the image below.

Authors and channel names
The “author” of a YouTube video is not necessarily the person or group who created the video. Instead, APA requires you to list the uploader of the video in the author position. This makes it easier for the reader to locate the video.

If the uploader is an individual whose real name is known and is different from their channel name, both should be included. The real name is written in the standard format, while the channel name follows in square brackets and is written exactly as it is on YouTube, retaining any unconventional capitalization or spacing.

Format
Last name, Initials. [Channel name]. (Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. YouTube. URL

Reference entry
Stevens, M. [Vsauce]. (2017, August 14). The napkin ring problem [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J51ncHP_BrY

In-text citation
(Stevens, 2017)

If the author’s real name is unknown or the uploader is not an individual, the channel name is included alone, with no brackets.
University of Oxford. (2019, December 15). Could we run the UK on carbon-free energy? [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/-EoVRpy4J_U
Where the channel name is the same as the author’s real name, it only needs to be written once:
Hertzfeldt, D. (2011, April 1). Everything will be OK – by Don Hertzfeldt [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/1IUX0Qy-IDM
In-text citations for YouTube videos
For an in-text citation of a YouTube video, use whichever name appears first in the full citation, whether that’s a real name or a channel name:

(Stevens, 2017)
(University of Oxford, 2019)

When you quote or refer to a specific part of a video, include a timestamp pointing to the relevant moment in the video:
(University of Oxford, 2019, 0:29)
If the person quoted is not the uploader, it’s best to specify their identity in the text, as in this TED Talk citation:
Justice reform advocate Nisha Anand opens her talk with the story of her family’s experiences during the Partition of India (TED, 2020, 1:59).
How to cite a YouTube channel
Sometimes you might need to cite a whole channel instead of a single video, as when you’re discussing a channel’s content in general.

In this case, don’t include the year the channel was created – just use “n.d.” (no date) as it’s the current content of the channel that’s relevant. Write “YouTube channel” instead of “Video” in the square brackets, and include a retrieval date, since channel content will change over time.

Format
Last name, Initials [Channel name]. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

Reference entry
University of Oxford. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/user/oxford

In-text citation
(University of Oxford, n.d.)

“Home” refers to the homepage of the channel; if you’re citing something else like the videos or playlists tab, replace accordingly:
University of Oxford. (n.d.). Videos [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://​www.youtube.com/​user/oxford/​videos


How to cite an encyclopedia in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
To cite an online encyclopedia entry in APA Style, start with the author of the entry (if listed), followed by the publication year, the entry title, the name of the editor, the encyclopedia name, the edition, the publisher, and the URL.

Format
Author last name, Initials. (Year). Entry name. In Editor initials. Last name (Ed.), Encyclopedia name (Edition). Publisher. URL

Reference entry
Wheeler, G. (2020). Bounded rationality. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2020 ed.). Stanford University. https://​plato.stanford.edu/​entries/​bounded-rationality/

In-text citation
(Wheeler, 2020)

[citation-widget style=”apa” type=”entry-encyclopedia”]

Encyclopedia entries with no author or date
Online encyclopedias are often updated on a continuous basis, so a publication date won’t necessarily be available. Additionally, they may not list authors or editors. When necessary, list the organization in the author position and write “n.d.” (no date) where the year would usually go, adding a retrieval date later:
Animalia (n.d.). Yellow-headed blackbird. In Animalia. Retrieved November 12, 2020, from http://animalia.bio/yellow-headed-blackbird
Note that the format is slightly different when you want to cite Wikipedia.
Citing a print encyclopedia
When citing a print encyclopedia, it will always be a specific edition whose year of publication is stated, so you should include this information. The publisher should not be written again if it is already listed in the author position.

Format
Publisher Name. (Year). Entry name. In Editor initials. Last name (Ed.), Encyclopedia name (Edition, p. Page number).

Reference entry
Cambridge University Press. (2020). Aria. In R. M. Marvin (Ed.), The Cambridge Verdi encyclopedia (p. 15).

In-text citation
(Cambridge University Press, 2020)

If the individual entry lists an author, include their name at the start and move the publisher name to the end.


How to cite an image in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
An APA image citation includes the creator’s name, the year, the image title and format (e.g. painting, photograph, map), and the location where you accessed or viewed the image.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Site Name. or Museum, Location. URL

Reference list
van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY, United States. https://www.moma.org/collection/works/79802

In-text citation
(van Gogh, 1889)

When you include an image or photo in your text, as well as citing the source, you must also present it as a figure and include any copyright/permissions information.

You can create your citations automatically with Scribbr’s free APA citation generator.
Generate an APA citation

Citing images accessed online
For online images, include the name of the site you found it on, and a URL. Link directly to the image where possible, as it may be hard to locate from the other information given.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Site Name. URL

Reference list
Thompson, M. (2020). Canyon wren [Photograph]. Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/2icfzq4

In-text citation
(Thompson, 2020)

Missing information
It can often be hard to find accurate information about images accessed online. Try looking for alternate sources of an image, checking image sites like Flickr that provide reliable information on their images, or finding a different image in cases where the one you planned to use has no reliable information.

However, if you do need to cite an image with no author, date or title listed, there are ways around this.

For untitled images, include a description of the image, in square brackets, where the title would usually go. If there is no publication date, add “n.d.” in place of the date, and add the date that you accessed the image.

Reference list
Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps map of Utrecht city center]. Retrieved January 10, 2020, from https://goo.gl/maps/keKNQZHZTS7ticwb8

In-text citation
(Google, n.d.)

For images where the creator is unknown, you can use the title or description in the author position.

Reference list
[Photograph of a violent confrontation during the Hong Kong protests]. (2019). https://twitter.com/xyz11111112

In-text citation
([Confrontation during Hong Kong protests], 2019)

Citing images viewed in person
If you viewed an image in person rather than online—for example in a museum or gallery, or in another text—the source information is different.

For images viewed in a museum or gallery, you include the name and location of the institution where you viewed the image.

Format
Last name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Museum, Location.

Reference list
Goya, F. (1819–1823). Saturn devouring his son [Painting]. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

In-text citation
(Goya, 1819–1823)

Location information includes the city, state/province (abbreviated), and country, e.g. Sydney, NSW, Australia. Omit the state/province if not applicable.

Citations for images sourced from a print publication such as a book, journal, or magazine include information about the print source in which the image originally appeared:
American Psychological Association. (2020). Sample conceptual model [Infographic]. In Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., p. 238). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
Including images as figures
When you include the image itself in your paper, it should be properly formatted as an APA figure, with a number, a descriptive title, and an entry in your list of figures if you have one.

The title of a figure should appear immediately above the image itself, and will vary according to the type of image cited. For example, an artwork is simply the work’s title.

A note below the figure may include further details regarding its authorship and medium, copyright/permissions information, additional explanatory notes, or other elements.

Note that any figures that you didn’t create yourself should appear both in your list of figures (if you have one) and on your reference page. Figures you create yourself only appear in the list of figures.


How to cite an interview in APA Style

This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines.
In APA Style, published interviews are cited in a different format from interviews you conducted yourself.

A personal interview you conducted that can’t be accessed by the reader should not be included in the reference list. Instead, it’s cited as a personal communication in the text.

To cite a published interview, follow the standard format for the source type it was published in (e.g. book, newspaper).
Citing interviews you conducted
An interview you conducted yourself is not included in the reference list, because it is not retrievable by your readers.

The way you refer to these interviews in the text depends on whether you include a transcript of the interview in an appendix.
Quoting your research participants
If your research methodology involved conducting formal interviews with participants, transcripts of these interviews are typically included in an appendix. You don’t need citations when quoting your research participants; just mention where the transcripts can be found.
One participant, David, stated that he found the experience “very challenging” (full interview transcripts are presented in Appendix A).
This only needs to be mentioned once; don’t refer to the appendix every time you quote from it. Similar advice applies to surveys.
Citing personal interviews
Personal interviews are those you conducted informally to obtain additional information to support your arguments. They are typically not included in an appendix.

As these are not published anywhere, they should be cited as personal communications in the text and omitted from the reference list.

Include the interviewee’s initials and last name, the words “personal communication,” and the date on which the interview was conducted.
Via email, one of the researchers involved in the project clarified that it was “still ongoing” (L. Singh, personal communication, April 24, 2020).
Citing published interviews
To cite a published interview, follow the format for the source type in which it was published.

The author is usually the interviewer. The name of the person interviewed is not included in the citation or in the reference list.

However, it’s important to make it clear exactly who said what when you quote from an interview conducted by someone else. In the following example, the citation incorrectly implies that the quote is from Davenport:
The United States aims to return its space program to its former glory: “A big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20).
To make it clear that these are the words of the interviewee, not the interviewer, name the speaker directly in the sentence:
The United States aims to return its space program to its former glory, as highlighted by NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine in a recent interview with the Washington Post: “A big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil” (Davenport, 2018, para. 20).
Citing a newspaper interview
To cite an interview published in a newspaper, follow the standard newspaper format, listing the interviewer in the author position.

Format
Interviewer name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Interview title. Newspaper Name. URL

Reference list
Dundas, D. (2019, November 8). Zadie Smith on fighting the algorithm: “If you are under 30, and you are able to think for yourself right now, God bless you.” Toronto Star. shorturl.at/eiyzW

In-text citation
(Dundas, 2019)

Citing a podcast interview
To cite an interview from a podcast, follow the format for citing a podcast episode, listing the host in the author position.

Format
Host name, Initials. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (No. Number). [Audio podcast episode]. In Podcast Name. Production Company. URL

Reference list
O’Brien, J. (Host). (2020, September 24). Margaret Atwood. [Audio podcast episode]. In Full Disclosure with James O’Brien. LBC. https://podcasts.apple.com/gb/podcast/margaret-atwood/id1454408831?i=1000492394615

In-text citation
(O’Brien, 2020)

Citing an interview from YouTube
To cite an interview you viewed on YouTube, follow the standard format for citing a YouTube video. Note that the person or organization that uploaded the video, rather than the person conducting the interview, appears in the author position.

Format
Author name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. YouTube. URL

Reference list
The New Yorker. (2018, April 4). Malcolm Gladwell explains where his ideas come from [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/zvv8iFupg9M

In-text citation
(The New Yorker, 2018)

[FAQ-article]


How to cite the Bible in APA Style

To cite the Bible in 7th edition APA Style, use the general book citation format, omitting the author element and listing the specific version used (not just “The Bible”) as the title. Include a URL if you accessed an online version.

To cite a specific passage from the Bible, include an abbreviated book title followed by a chapter and verse number in the in-text citation.

Format
Bible Version Title. (Year). Publisher. URL

Reference entry
English Standard Version Bible. (2001). ESV Online. https://esv.literalword.com/

In-text citation
(English Standard Version Bible, 2001, Josh. 2:7)

Biblical abbreviations in in-text citations
To cite a specific book of the Bible, a standard abbreviation is used for the title of each book; the full list can be found here. These abbreviations should be used in combination with chapter and verse numbers in your in-text citations. No page numbers are used.

Chapter and verse numbers are listed as numerals separated by a colon, after the abbreviated book title. So a citation of the seventh verse of the second chapter of the Book of Joshua looks like this:
Bible verse citation(English Standard Version Bible, 2001, Josh. 2:7)
To cite a range of verses, use an en dash and do not repeat the chapter number:
Citation of a range of Bible verses(English Standard Version Bible, 2001, Ex. 31:12–17)
Original publication dates
If you’re citing a classic version of the Bible, you’ll generally be referring to a modern reprint of that version, rather than the original. The first date you list in your reference is the date of the reprint, and the date of original publication appears at the end.

In your in-text citations, this order is reversed; the original date is listed first, then the date of the edition used, separated by a slash.

Format
Bible Version Title. (Year). Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Reference entry
King James Bible. (2008). Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1769)

In-text citation
(King James Bible, 1769/2008)

[FAQ-article]

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